NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) is building new generation of supersonic X-Plane. This supersonic X-Plane fly with its first piloted supersonic since the X-31. Generation of X-Plane on a Mach 1.28 jet. This supersonic X-Plane is designed to test thrust vectoring technologies. Supersonic X-Plane achieved first flight in 1990. Aeronautics agency's has targeted next design of supersonic X-Plane faster-than-sound experimental plane—the Low-Boom Flight Demonstration (LBFD). Supersonic X-Plane will concerned with the physics of breaking the sound barrier than the nuances of engine supersonic X-Plane performance.
|Low-Boom Supersonic X-Plane (NASA/Lockheed Martin)|
NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) about their supersonic flight in commercial aviation hopes to design and fly a supersonic jet like X-Plane that produces a low rumble when it breaks the sound barrier, so the people who live near Air Force bases with fighter squadrons are accustomed to hearing. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) is targeting at 2021 for first flight supersonic X-Plane of the single-engine, and single-pilot jet.
A preliminary design of supersonic X-Plane for the aircraft was produced by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. In Lockheed Martin Skunk Works can assisted in low- and high-speed wind tunnel tests with scaled models. High-speed wind tunnel tests were conducted at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center in February. Based on the according to Aviation Week, and the testing produced of wind tunnel "more favorable results than we expected," says Peter Iosifidis. Peter Iosifidis is an program manager at Skunk Works company. Wind tunnel testing is used for the preliminary design Quiet Supersonic Transport (QueSST). Work on the QueSST (Quiet Supersonic Transport) is wrapping up with low-speed wind tunnel tests at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). Low-speed wind tunnel in Langley Research Center using a 15 percent scale model of the aircraft that stretches 15 feet long.
Among the firms that submitted bids to build the full-scale, low-boom demonstrator is Lockheed Martin, which has been working closely with NASA on the preliminary design for the aircraft. Data from the QueSST program are being sent to aerospace firms interested in building the X-plane. The other known company to submit a bid is Spike Aerospace, an upstart supersonic hopeful that wants to field a 22-passenger Mach 1.6 quiet-boom business jet in the early 2020s. The full list of aerospace companies that submitted a bid is not available, although Boeing and Gulfstream have notably been involved in NASA's supersonic research programs in the past.
The current model for NASA's quiet-boom X-plane includes a number of unique design features to dampen the noise of a sonic boom. A long nose with a flattened tip, designed to be hollow on the full-scale X-plane, is shaped to prevent shock waves from coalescing on the front of the craft. These pockets of air pressure on the surface of the plane reach a point of maximum pressure at the front of the aircraft, followed by minimum pressure at the rear as the plane breaks the sound barrier. The tendency of multiple shock waves to combine before breaking the sound barrier produces the distinct double bang that aerospace engineers refer to as an "N wave" sonic boom. By keeping the shock waves separated on the airframe, the noise of a sonic boom can be reduced to a lower rumble.
The aircraft's wing, horizontal tail, and vertical fin with a small trim surface are also designed to prevent the coalescing of shock waves, but on the rear of the craft. The "gull wing," with bends in the wing surface, helps spread the sound waves of a sonic boom over a wider area below the craft, while small canards on the front assist with aircraft control. NASA is shooting for a sonic boom noise of 70-75 perceived decibel level (PLdB), significantly lower than the 105 PLdB that the Concorde made.
The length of the nose and cockpit design, which is embedded in the fuselage, both limit the pilot's field of view significantly. To fly the craft safely, NASA is developing an external vision system (XVS) with a high-definition camera in front of the cockpit, a lower-resolution camera under the aircraft for approach and landing, and a 4K ultra-high-definition display in the cockpit with overlaid heads up display icons, similar to the HUD system in a fighter jet.
NASA is using an off-the-shelf GE F414 afterburning turbofan to power the low-boom demonstrator, the same engine used by the F/A-18 Super Hornet. Embedded in the tail as a "dorsal engine," the turbofan is outfitted with a diverterless supersonic inlet, which prevents air close to the airframe, known as boundary layer airflow, from entering the intake. Lockheed plans to conduct tests on the inlet design in the coming months at its facilities in Fort Worth, Texas. In addition, vertical surfaces known as vortex generators sit just behind the cockpit and camera housing to divert the disturbed airflow over these surfaces away from the engine.
NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) keep this program low cost, so planning to use a number of existing aircraft parts to design the LBFD (Low-Boom Flight Demonstration) X-plane. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) will use F414 engine, repurpose the rear cockpit of a T-38 to serve as the supersonic X-plane's cockpit. This rear cockpit including canopy and ejection seat. Jet engine, about the weight of an F-16. This jet will use F-16 landing gear and brakes for high-speed landings. This F-16 jet can touchdown expected at 180 knots, or 207 mph.
Once the full-scale aircraft is complete, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) will begin the flight tests over the deserts of Edwards Air Force Base. Deserts of Edward Air Force Base where so many X-planes have pushed the envelope of aircraft capability. This place can dating all the way back to the era of Chuck Yeager and The Right Stuff. After the supersonic flight tests to about Mach 1.4 are completed, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) plans to fly the aircraft over residential communities to gauge public response to the noise. After this survey, the information could be presented to lawmakers in an effort to loosen supersonic flight restrictions over land.
Multiple commercial purpose aviation, the companies are working to build new supersonic passenger X-planes in the post-Concorde era. New supersonic passanger X-planes including Spike Aerospace, Boom Supersonic, and a partnership between Aerion and Airbus. More successful to build the supersonic passenger X-planes will be limited to breaking the sound barrier on over-ocean routes exclusively. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) hopes its next supersonic plane can faster-than-sound X-plane.
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